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2013年06月英语四级完整版真题:第一套

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Part I Writing (30 minutes)

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Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)Can Digital Textbook Truly Replace the Print Kind?The shortcomings of traditional print edition textbooks are obvious: For starters they’re heavy, with the average physics textbook weighing 3.6 pounds. They’re also expensive, especially when you factor in the average college student’s limited budget, typically costing hundreds of dollars every semester.But the worst part is that print version of textbooks are constantly undergoing revisions. Many professors require that their students use only the latest versions in the classroom, essentially rendering older texts unusable. For students, it means they’re basically stuck with a four pound paper-weight that they can’t sell back.Which is why digital textbooks, if they live up to their promise, could help ease many of these shortcomings. But till now, they’ve been something like a mirage(幻影)in the distance, more like a hazy(模糊的)dream than an actual reality. Imagine the promise: Carrying all your textbooks in a 1.3 pound iPad? It sounds almost too good to be true.But there are a few pilot schools already making the transition(过渡)over to digital books. Universities like Cornell and Brown have jumped onboard. And one medical program at the University of California, Irvine, gave their entire class iPads with which to download textbooks just last year.But not all were eager to jump aboard.“People were tired of using the iPad textbook besides using it for reading,” says Kalpit Shah, who will be going into his second year at Irvine’s medical program this fall. “They weren’t using it as a source of communication because they couldn’t read or write in it. So a third of the people in my program were using the iPad in class to take notes, the other third were using laptops and the last third were using paper and pencil.”The reason it hasn’t caught on yet, he tells me, is that the functionality of e-edition textbooks is incredibly limited, and some students just aren’t motivated to learn new study behavior.But a new application called Inkling might change all that. The company just released an updated version last week, and it’ll be utilized in over 50 undergraduate and graduate classrooms this coming school year.“Digital textbooks are not going to catch on,” says Inkling CEO Matt Maclnnis as he’s giving me a demo(演示)over coffee. “What I mean by that is the current perspective of the digital textbook is it’s an exact copy of the print book. There’s Course Smart, etc., these guys who take any image of the page and put it on a screen. If that’s how we’re defining digital textbooks, there’s no hope of that becoming a mainstream product.”He calls Inkling a platform for publishers to build rich multimedia content from the ground up, with a heavy emphasis on real-world functionality. The traditional textbook merely serves as a skeleton.At first glance Inkling is an impressive experience. After swiping(敲击)into the iPad app (应用软件 ), which you can get for free here, he opens up a few different types of textbooks.Up first is a chemistry book. The boot time is pretty fast, and he navigates through (浏览 ) a few chapters before swiping into a fully rendered 3D molecule that can be spun around to view its various building blocks. “Publishers give us all of the source media, artwork, videos,” he says, “We help them think through how to actually build something for this platform.”Next he pulls up a music composition textbook, complete with playable demos. It’s a learning experience that attacks you from multiple sensory directions. It’s clear why this would be something a music major would love.But the most exciting part about Inkling, to me, is its notation(批注)system. Here’s how it works!When you purchase a used print book, it comes with its previous owner’s highlights and notes in the margins. It uses the experience of someone who already went through the class to help improve your reading (how much you trust each notation is obviously up to you).But with lnkling, you can highlight a piece of content and make notes. Here’s where things get interesting, though: If a particularly important passage is highlighted by multiple lnkling users, that information is stored on the cloud and is available for anyone reading the same textbook to come across. That means users have access to notes from not only their classmates and Facebook friends, but anyone who purchased the book across the country. The best comments are then sorted democratically by a voting system, meaning that your social learning experience is shared with the best and brightest thinkers.As a bonus, professors can even chime in (插话 ) on discussions. They’ll be able to answer the questions of students who are in their class directly via the interactive book.Of course, Inkling addresses several of the other shortcomings in traditional print as well. Textbook versions are constanly updated, motivating publishers by minimizing production costs (the big ones like McGraw-Hill are already onboard). Furthermore, students will be able to purchase sections of the text instead of buying the whole thing, with individual chapters costing as little as $2.99.There are, however, challenges.“It takes efforts to build each book,” Maclnnis tells me. And it’s clear why.Each interactive textbook is a media-heavy experience built from the ground up, and you can tell that it takes a respectable amount of manpower to put together each one.For now the app is also iPad-exclusive, and though a few of these educational institutions are giving the hardware away for free, for other students who don’t have such a luxury it’s an added layer of cost — and an expensive one at that.But this much is clear. The traditional textbook model is and has been broken for quite some time. Whether digitally interactive ones like Inkling actually take off or not remains to be seen, and we probably won’t have a definite answer for the next few years.However the solution to any problem begins with a step in a direction. And at least for now, that hazy mirage in the distance? A little more tangible (可触摸的 ), a little less of a dream.1. The biggest problem with traditional print textbooks is that _____.

A) A) they are not reused once a new edition comes outB) they cost hundreds of dollars every semesterC) they are too heavy to carry aroundD) they take a longer time to revise2. What does the author say about digital textbooks?A) It’s not likely they will replace traditional textbooks. B) They haven’t fixed all the shortcomings of print books.C) Very few of them are available in the market.D) Many people still have difficulty using them.3. According to Kalpit Shah, some students still use paper and pencil because _____. A) they find it troublesome to take notes with an iPadB) they are unwilling to change their study behaviorC) they have get tired of reading on the iPadD) they are not used to reading on the screen4. Inkling CEO Matt Maclnnis explains that the problem with Course Smart’s current digital textbooks is that _____. A) they have to be revised repeatedlyB) they are inconvenient to use in classC) they are different from most mainstream productsD) they are no more than print versions put on a screen5. Matt Maclnnis describes the updated version of lnkling as _____.A) a good example of the mainstream productsB) a marvelous product of many creative ideasC) a platform for building multimedia contentD) a mere skeleton of traditional textbooks6. The author is most excited about lnkling’s notation system because one can _____. A) share his learning experience with the best and brightest thinkersB) participate in discussions with classmates and Facebook friendsC) vote for the best learners democraticallyD) store information on the cloud7. One additional advantage of the interactive digital textbook is that _____. A) students can switch to different discussions at any pointB) students can download relevant critical commentsC) professors can join in students’ online discussionsD) professors can give prompt feedback to students’ homework8. One of the challenges to build an interactive digital textbook from the ground up is that is takes a great deal of _____. 9. One problem for students to replace traditional textbooks with interactive digital ones is the high ______ of the hardware.10. According to the author, whether digital textbooks will catch on still _____.

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Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)Section ADirections: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。11. A) The woman is the manager's secretary.B) The man found himself in a wrong place.C) The man is the manager's business associate.D) The woman was putting up a sign on the wall.12. A) He needs more time for the report.B) He needs help to interpret the data.C) He is sorry not to have helped the woman.D) He does not have sufficient data to go on.13. A) A friend from New York.B) A message from Tony.C) A postal delivery.D) A change in the weather.14. A) She is not available until the end of next week.B) She is not a reliable source of information.C) She does not like taking exams.D) She does not like psychology.15. A) He will help the woman carry the suitcase.B) The woman's watch is twenty minutes fast.C) The woman shouldn't make such a big fuss.D) There is no need for the woman to be in a hurry.16. A) Mary is not so easygoing as her.B) Mary and she have a lot in common.C) She finds it hard to get along with Mary.D) She does not believe what her neighbors said.17. A) At an information service.B) At a car wash point.C) At a repair shop.D) At a dry cleaner's.18. A) The woman came to the concert at the man's request.B) The man is already fed up with playing the piano.C) The piece of music the man played is very popular.D) The man's unique talents are the envy of many people.Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.19. A) He has taught Spanish for a couple of years at a local school.B) He worked at the Brownstone Company for several years.C) He owned a small retail business in Michigan years ago.D) He has been working part-time in a school near Detroit.20. A) He prefers a full-time job with more responsibility.B) He is eager to find a job with an increased salary.C) He likes to work in a company close to home.D) He would rather get a less demanding job.21. A) Sports. B) Travel. C) Foreign languages. D) Computer games22. A) When he is supposed to start work.B) What responsibilities he would have.C) When he will be informed about his application.D) What career opportunities her company can offer.Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.23. A) She is pregnant.B) She is over 50.C) She has just finished her project.D) She is a good saleswoman.24. A) He takes good care of Lisa.B) He is the CEO of a giant company.C) He is good at business management.D) He works as a sales manager.25. A) It is in urgent need of further development.B) It produces goods popular among local people.C) It has been losing market share in recent years.D) It is well positioned to compete with the giants.Section BDirections: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。Passage OneQuestions 26 to 29 are based on the conversation you have just heard.26. A) It is lined with tall trees. C) It has high buildings on both sides.B) It was widened recently. D) It used to be dirty and disorderly.27. A) They repaved it with rocks. C) They beautified it with plants.B) They built public restrooms on it. D) They set up cooking facilities near it.28. A) What makes life enjoyable. C) What a community means.B) How to work with tools. D) How to improve health.29. A) They were obliged to fulfill the signed contract.B) They were encouraged by the city officials' praise.C) They wanted to prove they were as capable as boys.D) They derived happiness from the constructive work.Passage TwoQuestions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.30. A) The majority of them think it less important than computers.B) Many of them consider it boring and old-fashioned.C) The majority of them find it interesting.D) Few of them read more than ten books a year.31. A) Novels and stories. C) History and science books.B) Mysteries and detective stories. D) Books on culture and tradition.32. A) Watching TV. C) Reading magazines.B) Listening to music. D) Playing computer games.Passage ThreeQuestions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.33. A) Advice on the purchase of cars.B) Information about the new green-fuel vehicles.C) Trends for the development of the motor car.D) Solutions to global fuel shortage.34. A) Limited driving range. C) The short life of batteries.B) Huge recharging expenses. D) The unaffordable high price.35. A) They need to be further improved.B) They can easily switch to natural gas.C) They are more cost-effective than vehicles powered by solar energy.D) They can match conventional motor cars in performance and safety.Section CDirections: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。My favorite T.V. show? "The Twilight Zone." I (36) ______ like the episode called "The Printer's Devil." It's about a newspaper editor who's being (37) ______ out of business by a big newspaper syndicate - you know, a group of papers (38) ______ by the same people.He's about to (39) ______ suicide when he's interrupted by an old man who says his name is Smith. The editor is not only offered $5000 to pay off his newspaper's (40) ______, but this Smith character also offers his (41) ______ for free. It turns out that the guy (42) ______ the printing machine with amazing speed, and soon he's turning out newspapers with (43) ______ headlines. The small paper is successful again. The editor is amazed at how quickly Smith gets his stories only minutes after they happen - but soon he's presented with a contract to sign. Mr. Smith, it seems, is really the devil! (44) ______________________________________, so he agrees to sign. But soon Smith is reporting the news even before it happens - and it's all terrible one disaster after another. (45) ____________________________________________. I really like these old episodes of "The Twilight Zone" because the stories are fascinating. (46) _________________________.

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Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)Section ADirections: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Section BDirections: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.Passage OneQuestions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.Junk food is everywhere. We're eating way too much of it. Most of us know what we're doing and yet we do it anyway.So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the Rand Corporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply them to where food is sold and how it's displayed?"Many policy measures to control obesity (肥胖症) assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods," note the two researchers."In contrast," the researchers continue, "many regulations that don't assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance - like food - of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems."The research references studies of people's behavior with food and alcohol and results of alcohol restrictions, and then lists five regulations that the researchers think might be promising if applied to junk foods. Among them:Density restrictions: licenses to sell alcohol aren't handed out unplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配) based on the number of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcohol less easy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink.Similarly, the researchers say, being presented with junk food stimulates our desire to eat it. So why not limit the density of food outlets, particularly ones that sell food rich in empty calories? And why not limit sale of food in places that aren't primarily food stores?Display and sales restrictions: California has a rule prohibiting alcohol displays near the cash registers in gas stations, and in most places you can't buy alcohol at drive-through facilities. At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in places where they're easily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the store and ban them from the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restricting portion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, and placing warning labels on the products.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答57. What does the author say about junk food?A) People should be educated not to eat too much.B) It is widely consumed despite its ill reputation.C) Its temptation is too strong for people to resist.D) It causes more harm than is generally realized.58. What do the Rand researchers think of many of the policy measures to control obesity?A) They should be implemented effectively.B) They provide misleading information.C) They are based on wrong assumptions.D) They help people make rational choices.59. Why do policymakers of alcohol control place density restrictions?A) Few people are able to resist alcohol's temptations.B) There are already too many stores selling alcohol.C) Drinking strong alcohol can cause social problems.D) Easy access leads to customers' over-consumption.60. What is the purpose of California's rule about alcohol display in gas stations?A) To effectively limit the density of alcohol outlets.B) To help drivers to give up the habit of drinking.C) To prevent possible traffic jams in nearby areas.D) To get alcohol out of drivers' immediate sight.61. What is the general guideline the Rand researchers suggest about junk food control?A) Guiding people to make rational choices about food.B) Enhancing people's awareness of their own health.C) Borrowing ideas from alcohol control measures.D) Resorting to economic, legal and psychological means.Passage TwoQuestions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.Kodak's decision to file for bankruptcy (破产) protection is a sad, though not unexpected, turning point for a leading American corporation that pioneered consumer photography and dominated the film market for decades, but ultimately failed to adapt to the digital revolution.Although many attribute Kodak's downfall to "complacency (自满) , " that explanation doesn't acknowledge the lengths to which the company went to reinvent itself. Decades ago, Kodak anticipated that digital photography would overtake film - and in fact, Kodak invented the first digital camera in 1975 - but in a fateful decision, the company chose to shelf its new discovery to focus on its traditional film business.It wasn't that Kodak was blind to the future, said Rebecca Henderson, a professor at Harvard Business School, but rather that it failed to execute on a strategy to confront it. By the time the company realized its mistake, it was too late.Kodak is an example of a firm that was very much aware that they had to adapt, and spent a lot of money trying to do so, but ultimately failed. Large companies have a difficult time switching to new markets because there is a temptation to put existing assets into the new businesses.Although Kodak anticipated the inevitable rise of digital photography, its corporate culture was too rooted in the successes of the past for it to make the clean break necessary to fully embrace the future. They were a company stuck in time. Their history was so important to them. Now their history has become a liability.Kodak's downfall over the last several decades was dramatic. In 1976, the company commanded 90% of the market for photographic film and 85% of the market for cameras. But the 1980s brought new competition from Japanese film company Fuji Photo, which undermined Kodak by offering lower prices for film and photo supplies. Kodak's decision not to pursue the role of official film for the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics was a major miscalculation. The bid went instead to Fuji, which exploited its sponsorship to win a permanent foothold in the marketplace.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。62. What do we learn about Kodak?A) It went bankrupt all of a sudden.B) It is approaching its downfall.C) It initiated the digital revolution in the film industry.D) It is playing the dominant role in the film market.63. Why does the author mention Kodak's invention of the first digital camera?A) To show its early attempt to reinvent itself.B) To show its effort to overcome complacency.C) To show its quick adaptation to the digital revolution.D) To show its will to compete with Japan's Fuji Photo.64. Why do large companies have difficulty switching to new markets?A) They find it costly to give up their existing assets.B) They tend to be slow in confronting new challenges.C) They are unwilling to invest in new technology.D) They are deeply stuck in their glorious past.65. What does the author say Kodak's history has become?A) A burden. B) A mirror. C) A joke. D) A challenge.66. What was Kodak's fatal mistake?A) Its blind faith in traditional photography.B) Its failure to see Fuji Photo's emergence.C) Its refusal to sponsor the 1984 Olympics.D) Its overconfidence in its corporate culture.

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Part V Cloze (15 minutes)Directions:There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.Whether you think you need daytime rest or not, picking up a nap (午睡) habit is a smart, healthy move. The Mayo Clinic says naps __67__ relaxation, better mood and alertness, and a sharper working __68__. A 2008 British study found that compared to getting more nighttime sleep, a mid-day nap was the best way to cope __69__ the mid-afternoon sleepiness.According to the Harvard Health Letter, several studies have shown that people __70__ new information better when they take a nap shortly after learning it. And, most __71__, a 2007 study of nearly 24000 Greek adults in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that people who napped __72__ had a 37 percent reduced risk of dying __73__ heart disease compared to people who didn't nap.Of course, napping isn't __74__ for everyone. If you're suffering from inability to sleep, naps that are too long or taken too late in the day can __75__ with your ability to fall or stay asleep at night.But for most, naps can make you feel sharper and happier. Naps provide different benefits, __76__ on how long they are. A 20-minute nap will boost alertness and concentration; a 90-minute snooze (小睡) can __77__ creativity.According to prevention.com, you __78__ a natural dip in body temperature __79__ 1 p. m. and 3 p.m. A short nap at this time can boost alterness __80__ several hours and, for most people, shouldn't __81__ being able to fall asleep at night.Pick a dark, nice place that's not too warm or too chilly. Prevention.com __82__ napping on the couch instead of in bed, so you're less __83__ to snooze for too long.Surprisingly, the best place to take a nap may be a hammock (吊床) if you have one. A Swiss study __84__ last year found that people fell asleep faster and had deeper sleep when they napped in a hammock than in a bed. That same rocking __85__ that puts babies to sleep works __86__ for grown-ups, too.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。 67. A) enforce B) promote C) operate D) support 68. A) feeling B) frame C) sense D) mind 69. A) with B) aside C) about D) upon 70. A) remark B) consider C) remember D) concern 71. A) reportedly B) incredibly C) constantly D) frankly 72. A) regularly B) enormously C) heavily D) strongly 73. A) off B) under C) against D) from 74. A) exact B) correct C) right D) precise 75. A) influence B) eliminate C) compete D) interfere 76. A) focusing B) depending C) relying D) basing 77. A) enlarge B) engage C) enhance D) enlighten 78. A) explore B) experience C) exercise D) execute 79. A) between B) amidst C) among D) besides 80. A) of B) beyond C) during D) for 81. A) produce B) dispose C) affect D) hasten 82. A) illustrates B) decides C) predicts D) recommends 83. A) inclined B) involved C) adopted D) attracted 84. A) pronounced B) published C) discovered D) cultivated 85. A) mood B) model C) motion D) motive 86. A) wonders B) passions C) mystery D) pleasure

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Part VI Translation (5 minutes)Directions:Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答,只需写出译文部分。87. Although only in her teens, my sister is looking forward to ______________________ (独自去海外学习).88. It's true that we are not always going to succeed in our ventures, ________________ (即使我们投入了时间和金钱)89. The old couple hoped that their son ___________________________ (将不辜负他们的期望).90. So badly ___________________________ (他在车祸中受伤) that he had to stay in the hospital for a whole year.91. Nowadays, some people still have trouble ___________________________ (从网上获取信息).

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